‘Ignorance, egoism, attraction and aversion, and fear of death are the afflictions which cause suffering’.
Ignorance, avidya, is the lack of awareness of Reality. It is identification with the temporal world rather than with the imperishable Atman, or Self. Egoism is ‘I-ness’ and ‘My-ness’ which create the illusion that one person is different from another, bringing about conflict. Raga-dvesha translates as ‘like/dislikes’, when a person is swayed by feelings of attraction and aversion, he is identifying with the material world and setting himself up for the pain of loss and disappointment. Fear of death, or clinging to life, is binding and shifting. Many who have been pronounced dead and were later revived
have reported the experienced of death as indescribably beautiful and peaceful. None can say when death is useless imagination, a waste of energy, and creates waves of pain which exist only in the mind.